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This month, the United Nations Development Program made water and sanitation the centerpiece of its flagship publication, the Human Development Report.

Claims of a "water apartheid," where poor people pay more for water than the rich, are bound to attract attention. But what are the economics behind the problem, and how can it be fixed? In countries that have trouble delivering clean water to their people, a lack of infrastructure is often the culprit. People in areas that are not served by public utilities have to rely on costlier ways of getting water, such as itinerant water trucks and treks to wells. Paradoxically, as the water sources get costlier, the water itself tends to be more dangerous. Water piped by utilities - to the rich and the poor alike - is usually cleaner than water trucked in or collected from an outdoor tank.

The problem exists not only in rural areas but even in big cities, said Hakan Bjorkman, program director of the UN agency in Thailand. Further, subsidies made tolocal water systems often end up benefiting people other than the poor, he added.

The agency proposes a three-step solution. First, make access to 20 liters, or 5 gallons, of clean water a day a human right. Next, make local governments accountable for delivering this service. Last, invest in infrastructure to link people to water mains.The report says governments, especially in developing countries, should spend at least 1 percent of gross domestic product on water and sanitation. It also recommends that foreign aid be more directed toward these problems. Clearly, this approach relies heavily on government intervention, something Bjorkman readily acknowledged. But there are some market-based approaches as well.

By offering cut-rate connections to poor people to the water mainline, the private water utility in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, has steadily increased access to clean water, according to the agency&39;s report. A subsidy may not even be necessary, despite the agency&39;s proposals, if a country can harness the economic benefits of providing clean water.

People who receive clean water are much less likely to die from water-borne diseases - a common malady in the developing world - and much more likely to enjoy long, productive, taxpaying lives that can benefit their host countries. So if a government is trying to raise financing to invest in new infrastructure, it might find receptive ears in private credit markets - as long as it can harness the return. Similarly, private companies may calculate that it is worth bringing clean water to an area if its residents are willing to pay back the investment over many years.

In the meantime, some local solutions are being found. In Thailand, Bjorkman said, some small communities are taking challenges like water access upon themselves. "People organize themselves in groups to leverage what little resources they have to help their communities," he said. "That&39;s especially true out in the rural areas. They invest their money in revolving funds and saving schemes, and they invest themselves to improve their villages. "It is not always easy to take these solutions and replicate them in other countries, though. Assembling a broad menu of different approaches can be the first step in finding the right solution for a given region or country.

  • 近年来频发的自然灾害让全球深受其害。炎热的酷暑、狂暴的飓风、刺骨的严寒以及滔天的洪水近乎成了“常客”,风调雨顺已被视为“奢侈品”。




  • 改革开放30多年来,西藏通过深化改革和扩大开放积极推动全区商业、对外贸易和旅游产业加快发展,不仅增强了与内地的交流,同时也加强了与世界的联系和合作。

    1993年,西藏与全国一道开始建立“框架一致、体制衔接”的社会主义市场经济体制,深化物资、粮食、日用消费品等 领域价格流通改革并全面进入市场。目前,西藏已经深深融入全国统一的市场体系,来自全国和世界各地的商品源源不断地进入西藏,丰富着城乡市场和百姓生活。 西藏的名、优、特产品及民族手工业产品,大量进入全国市场。

    西藏与世界的经济联系日益密切。2012年,全区进出口总额为 34.24亿美元,是1953年0.04亿美元的850多倍,年均增长12.1%。截至2012年底,西藏实际利用外资4.7亿美元。西藏立足区位优势, 加强与印度、尼泊尔等周边国家的友好合作,实施面向南亚的陆路贸易大通道建设,大力发展边境贸易。

  • Early Maori adapted the tropically based east Polynesian culture in line with the challenges associated with a larger and more diverse environment, eventually developing their own distinctive culture.

    The British and Irish immigrants brought aspects of their own culture to New Zealand and also influenced Maori culture. More recently American, Australian, Asian and other European cultures have exerted influence on New Zealand.

    New Zealand music has been influenced by blues, jazz, country, rock and roll and hip hop, with many of these genres given a unique New Zealand interpretation. Maori developed traditional chants and songs from their ancient South-East Asian origins, and after centuries of isolation created a unique "monotonous" and "doleful" sound.

    The number of New Zealand films significantly increased during the 1970s. In 1978 the New Zealand Film Commission started assisting local film-makers and many films attained a world audience, some receiving international acknowledgement.

    New Zealand television primarily broadcasts American and British programming, along with a large number of Australian and local shows. The country&39;s diverse scenery and compact size, plus government incentives, have encouraged some producers to film big budget movies in New Zealand.

    The Ministry for Culture and Heritage is government’s leading adviser on cultural matters. The Ministry funds, monitors and supports a range of cultural agencies and delivers a range of high-quality cultural products and services.

    The Ministry provides advice to government on where to focus its interventions in the cultural sector. It seeks to ensure that funding is invested as effectively and efficiently as possible, and that government priorities are met.

    The Ministry has a strong track record of delivering high-quality publications, managing significant heritage and commemorations, and acting as guardian of New Zealand’s culture. The Ministry’s work prioritizes cultural outcomes and also supports educational, economic and social outcomes, linking with the work of a range of other government agencies.

  • 搞事情的英语怎么说?搞事情该怎么用英语说?



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